Thursday, March 12, 2020
Goals of Marketing Research Paper Example Goals of Marketing Paper Goals of Marketing Paper What are the basic goals of marketing? The basic goals of marketing is to target people who an interest in your product or service. The real challenge of marketing is in finding people who are most likely to want what you are selling and then get them to buy what you are selling. Take a good look at the products around your home. Why do you pick the brands you pick? Its called product differentiation. If you want your product to stand out, emphasize a retain feature or aspect about the product that makes It stand out above similar products and markets. And of course the smaller the niche, the better the fit between your services and the market for It, which will lead to a long lasting relationship with mutual benefits. Always select, read and use the resources of your target market and youll be able to predict with measurable success the trends and shifts In the market. You have to realize Its the market that drives the sellers, so you cant Just sell anything you want. :
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Best Candidate to be U.S. President - Essay Example He has continued to make such significant and deep speeches and has even been combined it with solid character. One cannot ignore such an aspect of leadership because no matter how good a president's policies are, at the end of the day, he/she needs to communicate them to the public and convince them why those policies should be implemented. History has shown how leaders like Winston Churchill and Adolph Hitler were able to move crowds to action. Presidents with good oratory skills may motivate their citizens to work harder and contribute towards the development of their economy. (Somerset, 2008) Some of Obama's rivals have claimed that this is something that should not be considered since they feel that greater precedence should be given to policies. However, this argument holds no water because Obama has both aspects; oratory skills and concrete ideas. One of the most outspoken candidates and rivals to Obama; Clinton keep on claiming that Senator Obama has no experience in politics generally and in the United States parliament specifically. However this is very invalid statement because of the following reasons; First of all, Senator Obama has served for seven years as Illinois Senator. When one compares this to what President George W. Bush had before his election, this exceeds Bush's years by five. Even his main democratic rival has nothing on him. If voted into office, he will have three years more experience than her. It should also be note that the issue of experience has only been considered as a point by Hillary Clinton. No other presidential candidate has highlighted the issue of lack of experience aside from her. Racial issues Some stereotypes have argued that American citizens will never accept an African American for president. But this is a far cry from where the American State has emerged. Gone are the days when African Americans were considered as subordinate to the 'white' American. Those issues were addressed adequately in the 1964 Civil rights movements that saw the elimination of all discriminative issues. While one must not ignore the fact that race is still an issue in the US, it is highly unlikely that this will the main issue driving the election. Polls have shown that the racial issue carries a very small percentage among priority lists for voters. (Hutcherson, 2008) It should also be noted that there are also other issues in other presidential candidates that would cause potential sources of bias. For example, Hillary Clinton is also not your 'typical candidate' simply because she is a woman. The New Mexico Governor was happens to be a Latin American and still stood for the presidential race. Therefore proponents of this argument would eliminate almost all presidential candidates since there is something about them that renders them unconventional. The United States electorate is more interested in the best and most qualified person for the job and not how they look like. Such biases are more of side shows than the real deal. Bi partisanship Senator Barrack Obama is one leader who has the ability to reconcile two major differing parties or issues. The nature of the American State is that most individuals are quite opinionated yet democratic at the same time. There is no room for imposition of rules or policies without consultation and
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Operations Management and Operations Function - Essay Example Organizations have got into a new era that is featured dramatic, rapid, and turbulent changes. The increased pace of change has transformed the operations in the organizations (Mahadevan, 2010, p. 307). The transformation has become integral and inherent part of organizational life. Several emerging trends have made organizations change their operations functions. These trends include globalization and increased competition from the emerging industries. Most organizations operate in a global economy that is characterized by intense competition. Many products and service are consumed externally as compared to the country of origin. Globalization has brought about a greater union in terms of taste and preference. For this reason, many organizations have changed their old operations in order to keep up with the competition in the market. An operations manager plays a vital role in business, government or any other organization. The task of operation manager is dependent on nature and the size of the organization. An operation manager requires both interpersonal and business skills to succeed in his/ her operations (Burcher, 2004, p. 30). An operation plays a vital role in the management of resources in the organization. Additionally, the operation manager is responsible for financial management in the organization. The operations manager is also responsible for setting objectives and goals and makes policies in various departments in the organization (Meyler, et al., 2013 p 100).
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Religion of Paul the Apostle by John Ashton Essay This book is the outcome of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction that an important way of understanding Saint Paul has been neglected. He mentions the idea expressed in 1888 by Hermann Gunkel, that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life experiences are the key to understanding his teaching about the spirit. On page 198 Ashton quotes Heinrich Weinel as saying :- Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Whenever the early church speaks of spirit and spirits it is always a matter of a perception based on frequent occurrences of real experiences. We see therefore that this book is much more an attempt to explain PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences than yet another examination of his theology. The blurb on the back of this unusual book says in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own words :- Paul did, I think, found a religion, and this book is largely concerned Ã with the question of how he came to do so. Besides being a study of comparative religion it is also proffered as a contribution towards the Ã history of early Christianity. Some would argue with that definition Ã¢â¬â it seems to remove Christ from the picture and also the work of other evangelists. Paul has such a prominent position in the New Testament not necessarily because he was more important than other evangelists, but because, in Luke, he had such an excellent biographer. A look at the Bible references in the back of the book reveals how many times PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life or words are referenced in comparison to the relatively few references taken from the gospels and the Old Testament. The book is very concerned with definitions, in particular with the difference betweenÃ religion Ã¢â¬â defined as experience, and theology Ã¢â¬â defined as the thinking that comes as a result of that experience. This is a scholarly work as can be seen immediately from the background of the author and the number of works by other scholars that he has consulted .John Ashton was formerly a lecturer in New Testament Studies at Oxford University. He had previously taught at the universities of London, St Andrews and Edinburgh. At the time of writing this book ( 2000) he was Emeritus Fellow of Wolfson College, also in Oxford. He is best known for writing about JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s gospel Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËUnderstanding the Fourth GospelÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËApproaches to the Fourth GospelÃ¢â¬â¢ etc Ã¢â¬ËThe religion of Saint Paul the ApostleÃ¢â¬â¢ was originally a series of 8 lectures which the author had been asked to give at Oxford University in 1998. These were the annual Ã¢â¬ËWilde Lectures in Natural and Comparative ReligionÃ¢â¬â¢, founded under a trust deed in 1908. The nature of the lectures has changed over the yearsÃ as Ashton explains. Once upon a time they sought to distinguish the higher religions from the lower, but this second part of the description was dropped in 1969, probably in an attempt not to appear racist or judgmental. He uses material both from Paul himself, but also from contemporaries of his from both Jewish and Hellenistic, i.e. pagan, backgrounds. Ashton describes how from the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s onwards there had been attempts to study the New Testament as objectively as one might study any other historical sources, but also goes on to say that the people were concerned were actually theologians rather than historians and were in the main Christians. It is however a subject t upon which it is very difficult to remain objective whatever oneÃ¢â¬â¢s background as believer, atheist, agnostic or member of another religion. Ã AshtonÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument in this work is that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s personal mystical experiences, especially the events on the Damascus road recorded by Luke in Acts 9, may be of more importance than the somewhat unsystematic theology of his letters. The book seeks to show how important aspects of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life and ministry should be seen in the light of his religious experience. He quotes Schweitzer who said of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s mysticism that it Ã¢â¬Ëmarks the last stage of the battle fought by the idea of resurrection to establish its place in eschatologyÃ¢â¬â¢. He examines closely what he sees as shamanistic elements of Paul, both in his teaching and his letters and mentions how, from the1880Ã¢â¬â¢s onwards there have been those who have sought to prove that Paul was greatly influenced by pagan mystery religions which abounded at the time giving as an example his theology of baptism which it could be argued was very similar to that of the re-enactions of the death and rebirth of various gods such as Attis,Ã a Phrygian god of vegetation and Adonis,Ã a Greek deity. These ideas would be familiar to Paul, bought up as he was in a world where Greek influence was important, but his main influenceÃ must have been his Jewish background, although Ashton believes that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s religion was rather more than a mere modification of Judaism. On page 135 Ashton describes baptism as practised in the churches that Paul founded as being no more than a token when compared to the rites of passage practised in other religions of the time. Some would disagree with this minimalisation of what they see as an important part of Christian ritual, and in many churches it is only undertaken after a period of instruction which may be quite prolonged. Ashton says that the starting point for PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking on the subject comes not from his knowledge of baptismal practices in Judaism, but was a result of his dramatic death life experience on the Damascus road and the subsequent resurrection to a new life in Damascus. Ã In chapter 7 he explains the part that the spirit world played in ancient times Ã¢â¬â anything that could not be explained was deemed to be the work of spirits and gods Ã¢â¬â for good or ill. Mention is made of how demons were believed to be behind and to explain all sorts of happenings that deviated from the norm such as storms, plagues, riots, unhappy love affairs and much more. Paul does not mention demons much, though he does refer to what he sees as his one great adversary Ã¢â¬â Satan. Ashton explains the role of the spirit both in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life and in that of his converts. He also examines the role of Christ himself in a passage which he realises may cause offence as it is entitled Ã¢â¬ËJesus the ShamanÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã In order to mitigate any offence he states that shamanism was not the most important aspect of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ ministry, but says that JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ life as a wandering healer fits in with shamanistic practices even more than does the work of Paul. He claims that Jesus was not unique in this quoting several sources. There is detailed reference to the various words used to describe JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ actions in Ã¢â¬ËmuzzlingÃ¢â¬â¢ evil spirits. This, Ashton says, merely places Christ alongside other exorcists of the time. The difference was how he did it according to Mark chapter 3 v 11 and 12 where we are told that Ã¢â¬Å" Whenever the evil spirits saw him they fell down before him and cried out Ã¢â¬ËYou are the Son of GodÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ On page 69, still discussing the shamanism of Christ, Ashton reminds us that in all three synoptic gospels the two incidents of the baptism of Christ and the temptation in the wilderness are recorded in that order andÃ he admits that for the purposes of his argument it would be better if they had beenÃ recorded in the reverse order which would have fitted in better with the usual shamanistic experience of struggle followed by call or empowerment but a t least the two are associated. Ã Although in chapter 2, entitled Ã¢â¬ËPaul the EnigmaÃ¢â¬â¢ the question is asked Ã¢â¬ËWas Paul a shaman?Ã¢â¬â¢ the answer is quickly given Ã¢â¬ËNot reallyÃ¢â¬â¢. A shaman is a member of a tribal society who acts as a medium between the natural world and the spiritual one. A shaman is limited in his influence and also his periods of spirit filled ecstasy are limited and transitory. He uses magic to control events in the natural world, whether for good as in healing, or for bad as in curses. Paul did use his powers to control nature as when on the isle of Malta ( Acts 27) to cure many people, but it was available widely and not used in a negative way. Yet the author insists that some of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s practices were shamanistic in nature and quotes the example of a picture of Paul struck blind from Ã¢â¬ËTrÃ ¨s Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.Ã¢â¬â¢ Under the picture are the words Ã¢â¬ËThe inspired priest or shaman is usually called to his vocationÃ by a traumatic experience.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ashton sees the role of the shaman in two parts Ã¢â¬â the shamanÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experience and his ability to persuade other people of his exceptional gifts. This latter aspect is described as the social aspect. Ashton quotes at length from a Japanese work on the subject which states that a shaman is one who receives a gift from the spirit world. Usually this is from one spirit who becomes a companion or guide and after receiving the gift the shaman may experience a period of hysteria afterwards which results in illness. The process involves a complete change of character, perhaps like that described at the time of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting with the risen Christ. Whatever happened to Paul he himself saw it as a vision and a call Ã¢â¬â see Galatians 1. On page 243 Ashton mentions the finding of the documents now known as the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947. One of these Ã¢â¬ËSongs of the Sabbath SacrificeÃ¢â¬â¢ was finally published only in 1985. He states that as early as 1971 John Bowker had put forward the proposition that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s vision took place while he was engaged in a period of merkabah mysticism as mentioned in the scroll. He then mentions the doctoral thesis published in 1980 by Seyoon Kim Ã¢â¬ËThe OriginÃ¢â¬â¢s of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s GospelÃ¢â¬ which seems able to prove a link between Ezekiel 1, a key passage in the study of such mystic practises, and the verse in the Second letter to the Corinthians Ã ( 4 v 6) where it says Ã¢â¬ËFor God who said Ã¢â¬Å"Let light shine out of darknessÃ¢â¬ made his light shine in our heartsÃ¢â¬â¢. Ashton further argues that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to discuss spiritual matters is important in understanding the continuing popularity of his writings. The aim is to define Paul Ã¢â¬â a convert, a prophet, a mystic, an apostle, a charismatic, a shaman. Whichever definition one prefers Ashton argues that Paul acted as he did because of the set of circumstances in which he found himself. In chapter 4, entitled Ã¢â¬ËPaul the MysticÃ¢â¬â¢ Ashton is concerned with PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s mystical experiences, especially the rapture which he described in 2 Corinthian 12 as being carried up to the third heaven. The trances in which visions like these occur were well known in Judaism, but as Ashton points out, are a feature of shamanistic activities throughout the world. Despite this Ashton admits on his final page that any observable resemblances between PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life and features of shamanism are coincidence only. Another aspect of the book is the examination of why, according to Ashton, Paul generally seemed to prefer to speak to Gentile audiences rather than the Jews of whom he was one, and, alongside this, there is an examination of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to traditional Judaism, which it is possible he never officially renounced. See 2nd Corinthians 11 v 22 Ã¢â¬ËAre they Hebrew? So am IÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã Ã Ashton seems fascinated with the idea of the symbiosis of Judaism and its younger offspring Christianity as when Paul spent three weeks at Thessalonica explaining how Jesus had to die and rise again, using the Jewish scriptures to do so.( Acts 17 v 1-4). Christians today read PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s words after 2000 years of the church developing his ideas into what we call Christian theology, something that was not in place before Paul Ã¢â¬â says Ashton, but he pays little attention to the theology of Christ found in the gospels. Ashton believed that Paul was a religious thinker in the sense that his thoughts were reflection upon his experiences rather than a pure theologian. In his introduction Ashton discusses various previous ways of looking at Paul and his influence i.e. a studies of his conversion and subsequent work in founding and building Christian communities; those who aim to present a systematic account of his thinking; PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology and finally those who seek to put his work in a historical or/and sociological perspective. He concludes that none of these approaches quite fits his purpose, without stating precisely what his purpose is at this point. Chapter 2 describes Paul as an enigma Ã¢â¬â a puzzle. He questions how much shamanistic practices, already present in Judaism back until the time of the Judges, affected Paul. Ashton quotes passages from I Samuel describing prophets and seers, a translation which Ashton believes to be wrong. and quotes much later passages, in Isaiah and Jeremiah where the practices of mediums and so on were condemned e.g. Isaiah 8 v 19. Like many others of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s followers Paul was an exorcist and a prophet. On page 36 Ashton concludes that there is no evidence that Paul picked up shamanistic practices from another Ã shaman, unless, as some such as Andrew Wilson believe, he did meet Christ in life and copied his practices. Among the many works quoted is Karl BarthÃ¢â¬â¢s commentary on Romans in which Ashton says that Barth deplores any attempt to describe Paul as a religious figure. Also mentioned is Ã J. Louis Martyn who aims in his commentary to dispel the idea that Paul was in any way anti-Jewish. Barth in particular splits religion absolutely from theology, but although it is possible to study the subject in a totally objective way, just as one might study chemistry, I do not feel that this is true of Paul. His theology sprang very definitely from his personal experience of the Saviour and the Holy Spirit working within him. Ashton also tries to explain the huge success of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s message in bringing about change in the lives of both individualÃ¢â¬â¢s and communities. On page 234, in a chapter entitled Ã¢â¬ËPaul the PossessedÃ¢â¬â¢ Ashton quotes PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s words in his letter to the Galatian church , Galatians 4Ã v14, where he describes how, despite his physical difficulties, he was welcomed Ã¢â¬Ëas if I were an angel of GodÃ¢â¬â¢ i.e. as a messenger directly from God.Ã George Bertram is quoted as saying that this passage is the key to PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s own understanding of his role. Ã Ã¢â¬ËHe is entitledÃ to speak in this wayÃ¢â¬â¢ says Bertram , Ã¢â¬Ëbecause Christ is manifested in him, in his body, in his missionary workÃ¢â¬â¢. On page 236 Evans-PritchardÃ¢â¬â¢s statement about how, when a man is seized by a spirit, the event may be a temporary one, is quoted. Evans-Pritchard went on to say that if it is a permanent possession, the person becomes a prophet capable of healing, of exorcism and having foresight into events. The presence of the Holy Spirit was the ruling factor in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Consider for instance his words in Romans 8 v 14 -16:-Ã¢â¬ËThose who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬Ëthe Spirit itself testifies with our spirit that we are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s childrenÃ¢â¬â¢. Yet this is the same Paul who described himself in 1st Timothy as Ã¢â¬Ëthe worst of sinners.Ã¢â¬â¢ (I Tim. 1 v 16). How great the change must have been. If we take LukeÃ¢â¬â¢s word in Acts 28 where he describes how Paul, right up until what may have been the end of his life, continued to teach and preach and quoted Isaiah who spoke about how the Holy Spirit spoke the truth, then in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s case the change that occurred on the Damascus road was very permanent and influenced all that he both did and said. Ã Professor Ashton claims on page 162, in a chapter concerned with the apostleship of Paul, that Luke, as biographer, has no interest in the question that intrigues him. The story Luke is telling is that of how Christ, rejected by the Jews, was proclaimed to the Gentiles. Luke was eager to show how Paul used scripture to make his point. Ashton describes Paul, on page 162, as the chief witness and as such he was not reluctant to use spiritual power to do so.( I Corinthians 2 v 5) Just as Luke uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëin the power of the spiritÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe how Jesus returned to Galilee, Paul uses the same phrase to describe his own activity. Luke also tells us that Christ gave the apostles power and how Paul manifested similar power. Ashton mentions the passage in 2nd Corinthians 12 v 12 that he feels is the key to PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to gain a hearing and also to convince Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ËThe things that mark an apostle Ã¢â¬â signs, wonders and miracles Ã¢â¬â were done among you with great perseverance.Ã¢â¬â¢ The people were convinced because his words had authority behind them Ã¢â¬â an authority he claimed came from the Messiah himself. Ashton mentions the work of Ramsey MacMullen in describing how religious fairs would convince people to join pagan religions. Their senses would be assaulted by all kinds of wonders. Ashton claims that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s career begun in a similar way as a wonder worker and, although Luke tells us that Paul preached the word it seems likely that it was his spiritual acts that were the first attraction and only later did promises of salvation and forgiveness take root. Ashton concludes his unusual book by saying that he is a historian, and having looked at Paul using history and comparative anthropology as an alternative to the work of theologians, he hopes that if the book is noticed at all it will show that the way of the theologian is not the only way to come to an understanding of Paul the Apostle. This is not an easy book to either read or review. Not because it is difficult to follow the arguments, whether or not one agrees with them, but because it is so easy to get sidetracked along paths that one has not perhaps explored before such as the influence of Jewish mysticism on the early church or what other commentators say about a passageÃ Ã such as that in Ezekiel chapter 1. Bu t if it rouses interest in this subject it has done its job even if the author is rather divident to whether or not or not he has proved his point. Ã Ã Bibliography and Works Cited Ashton, John, Approaches to the Fourth Gospel ( Oxford University Press, Oxford 1994) Ashton, John, The Religion of Paul the Apostle ( Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2000) Ashton, John, Understanding the Fourth Gospel (Clarendon Paperbacks, Oxford, 1994) Bertram,G. ,Paulus Christophoys:Ein anthropologisches Problem des Neuen Testaments in Stromata: Festgabe des akademischen Verreins zu Giessen im Schmalkaldener Kartell anlÃ ¤ÃÅ¸lich seines 50. Stiftungstages ( Leipzig 1930) Bible, New International Version ( Hodder and Stoughton, London 1998) Bowker,J. Ã¢â¬ËMerkabahÃ¢â¬â¢ Visions and Visions of Paul, ( JSS 16 1971) Evans-Pritchard, E.E. Nuer Religion,( Oxford 1956). Gunkel, H. Die Wirkungen des heiligen Geistes nach der populÃ ¤ren Anschuung der apostolischen Zeit und der Lehre des apostels Paulus ( GÃ ¶ttingen 1888) Kim,S., The Origin of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel, ( Berlin 1984). Ramsey,W.M., The Bearing of Recent discoveries on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament,( London 1915) Schweitzer,A. Ã Geschichte der paulinnischen Forschung von der Reformation bis auf die Gergenwart.( TÃ ¼bingen 191) TrÃ ¨s Riches Heures du Duc de Berry http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/rh/1.html ( accessed 12th January 2008). Weinel,H., Die Wirkungen des Geistes und der Geister im nachapostolischen Zeitaler bis zum IrenÃ ¤us ( Friburg i.B/Liepzig/TÃ ¼bingen 1899) Wilson,A.N. PaulÃ :the Mind of the Apostle, ( London 1997).
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Band of Brothers by Stephen Ambrose I. Authors Background Stephen Ambrose was born in 1936 and grew up in Whitewater, Wisconsin, a small town where his father was the M.D. At the University of Wisconsin, he started as a pre-med, but inspired by a great professor he changed his major to History. After getting his M.A. degree at Louisiana State University, he returned to the University of Wisconsin to complete a Ph.D. Ambrose began teaching at the University of New Orleans. He started as a Civil War historian but changed to political history after President Eisenhower asked him to become his biographer. Since then, Ambrose has written more than twenty books. Among his best sellers are D-Day, Citizen Soldiers, Band of Brothers, Undaunted Courage and Nothing like it in the World. He was also a consultant for Steven SpielbergÃ¢â¬â¢s movie Saving Private Ryan. He is a retired Professor of History. Ambrose is now the director of the Eisenhower Center in New Orleans and is the founder of the National D-Day Museum. He is also a contributing editor of the Quarterly Journal of Military History. II. Synopsis Band of Brothers is a fascinating book that captures moments lived by soldiers during World War II. It specifically relates to the History of a small unit of paratroopers known as Easy Company, 506 Regiment, 101st Airborne. It is a story that follows the company from its inception to the capture of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s nest. It begins with the training of these soldiers at Camp Toccoa, Georgia. The 140 members of easy company who were young men from different social levels were physically and mentally trained. This particular company had an extremely harsh training, but many believe it is because of this training that they were considered as one of the best rifle companies in the army. Their trainer was Captain Sobel who they disliked but was later replaced with Lieutenant Winters. Two of the many things these soldiers learned were brotherhood and leadership. The first drop done by the paratroopers was on June 6, 1944 in Normandy. This drop did not result as planned. Planes were flying at a high velocity and at a short distance from the ground. Therefore one of the planes got hit. They arrived at Carentan which they captured and flew back to Aldbourne. Their second drop was on September 17, 1944 in Holland. This time it was perfectly done.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Mr. Wilson English 11 5 September 2012 Summer Reading Assignment: About a Boy Insensible Will, who lives comfortably off of the money from a popular Christmas song his father wrote, comes up with the idea to join a Single Parents Alone Together, (SPAT), group in order to pick up single moms. What he chooses to overlook however, is the fact that he does not have any children. This sparks a chain of events beginning with him meeting Marcus, an awkward young teenage boy who is being raised by a depressed, single mother.Marcus is constantly tormented at school and feels as though he has no one to turn to. He becomes very fond of Will who is tolerant with him at first and begins to grow attached to his high strung personality. Marcus begins to gain confidence, learn how to deal with his mother, and win the affection of an older punk rocker girl named Ellie at his school. However spending time with Marcus begins to show Will just how empty his life really is. Marcus and Will cross paths at a SPAT get together when MarcusÃ¢â¬â¢s mom asks her friend Susie to bring him.That day is the when both Marcus and WillsÃ¢â¬â¢ life change forever. When arriving home from the SPAT party Susie, Marcus, and Will walk into MarcusÃ¢â¬â¢s mom Fiona passed out in her own vomit. In the mix of it all Marcus doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even see that his mom had tried to overdose on pills. From that day forward Marcus constantly worried about his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s depression instead of worrying about himself, and how he gets picked on everyday at his school. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until he met Will that Marcus realized why he was getting picked on.Fiona, MarcusÃ¢â¬â¢s mom, was in denial and believed that Marcus was just fine wearing ugly shoes, and listening to Mozart. Will helps him to find himself, and to shed his nerdy and dorky skin. As the months passed Marcus began to change and he started hanging out with this punk rocker girl Ellie. At first Marcus believed that he was in love with Ellie and tha t he could spend the rest of his life with her but after taking her to go see his father Marcus realizes she is just too different and crazy. At the end of the novel Will knows for sure that Marcus will be ok when he complains about Will askingFiona to take out sheet music of MarcusÃ¢â¬â¢s old favorite nerdy singer. He knows the days of Marcus letting kids bully him, steal his shoes, and mock him for his old haircut are gone. Will did not only help Marcus, but Marcus helped him. Before he was ever involved with Marcus, Will was a pot smoking, lazy, self centered person. However after everything he went through with Marcus, Will changed, and for the better. At the end of the novel Will had found love with this beautiful single mother, Rachel. Even Will realized that himself.He had lost his shell and his cool and his distance, and he felt scared and vulnerable, but he got to be with Rachel, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all that mattered. Fiona at the beginning of the novel was a suicidal, depr essed, and horrible mother. Even after trying to kill herself she was still horrible. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even notice how hard of a time Marcus was having at school and she wanted to take away Will from Marcus when he was the only thing making her son happy. But as Marcus changed so did Fiona. She was longer so depressed and no longer hated Marcus as her son.Even though she has lost a big part of Marcus, she got to stay away from the hospital because she was no longer depressed. Change makes you flexible, and helps go with the flow. Change makes you smarter. If things never changed, youÃ¢â¬â¢d never learn anything new. And every time you learn something new its makes you smarter than you were yesterday. Change reminds us that anything is possible. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to think that anything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s stuck will always be that way. Marcus, Fiona and Will all learned how to improve their lives and it was all because of each other.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In modern Britain, is the family still an effective source of social control Have any other influences or social networks become more effective in providing this - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2348 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Sociology Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Social control can be defined as a system of measures, suggestion, persuasion, restraint and coercion by which society brings people into conformity with an accepted code of behaviour (Sharma, 2007, p. 220). There are many forms of direct and indirect social control. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "In modern Britain, is the family still an effective source of social control? Have any other influences or social networks become more effective in providing this?" essay for you Create order The family has always provided a strong means of social control in its direct influence on the behaviour of its members. However, with the changing nature of the family structure in modern Britain, the familys ability to provide an effective means of social control has been called into question. This essay will explore the concept of social control in relation to the changing role of the family and the increasing influence of other areas, in particular the mass media and the internet. Social control comes in two distinct forms: direct control and indirect control. Direct social control works when someone exerts influence on a person directly due to their close proximity, for example, the family. Indirect social control is provided by other factors removed physically from the person, such as institutions, traditions, customs and culture: these indirect means of social control are invisible and subtle (Sharma, 2007, p. 221). There are also two forms of social control within these groupings: control by sanction, which rewards the compliant and punishes the miscreant, and control by socialisation and education (Sharma, 2007, p. 222). Social control can be maintained by positive means and negative means. Positive means of social control make people want to conform to society in order to enjoy rewards, such as praise, social recognition or respect. Negative means of social control work in the opposite way, making people want to conform to society in order to avoid emotional or physical punishment, criticism, ridicule or shame (Sharma, 2007, p. 222). Formal and informal types of social control are also recognised as mean of controlling peoples behaviour within society. Formal social control is carried out by an agency specifically set up to ensure that people conform to a particular set of norms, especially the law (Browne, 2011, p. 17). Forms of formal social control include the control exerted by official institutions such as the government, education establishments, religion, the police and the army. Informal social control, in contrast, is carried out by agencies whose primary purpose is not social control (Browne, 2011, p. 18), such as family and friends, who influence us by socialising us into certain customs, values, ideals and norms. One example of socialised norms is gender roles. Boys and girls are encouraged to behave in way which accords with what society accepts to be masculine (assertive and dominant) or feminine (passive and submissive) forms of behaviour. To step outside these socialised expectations would be seen as transgressive and may lead to disapproval from others. Gender roles have been proven to be socially constructed rather than the result of any natural inclinations by studies that show men and womens accepted gender roles to be very different in other cultures and tribes around the world (Browne, 2011, p. 20). The family has always provided a strong means of social control. Parents provide children with direct guidelines to follow regarding acceptable behaviour. Social control through the family is achieved by both positive and negative means, with children keen to gain praise from their parents, while wanting to avoid punishment in any form for disobedience.ÃâÃ According to social control theory, those who are socially integrated Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ are more likely to engage in socially sanctioned behaviours and less likely to engage in risky behaviours (Baron, 2007, p. 9). In this way, social integration offered by the family unit helps to encourage socially accepted behaviour. However, the role of the family has changed significantly over the years. There has been a reduction in economic functions due to an increase in government help; a reduction in activities performed by the family with an increase in baby sitters and nurseries; an increase in family recreation with the advent of television and radio; and most importantly, a change in the relationships between men and women (Sharma, 2007, p. 256), which has seen the dominance of the patriarchal head being replaced by a need for co-operation among equals (Sharma, 2007, p. 259). The traditional idea of the nuclear family, consisting of the mother, father and two children, is no longer relevant in modern times. Today, there are many families made up of unmarried parents and single parents, while there are also many step-families and increasingly, homosexual partners with children. The traditional family is also being replaced by other modes of living, for example, single-person homes and house-shares of friends. The changing nature of the family unit means that today the word family can suggest such a variety of situations that no typical family now effectively exists. Bernardes suggests that family situations in contemporary society are so varied and diverse that it simply makes no sociological sense to speak of a single ideal-type model of the family at all (Bernardes, 1997, p. 209). Indeed, the Office of National Statistics tells us that the number of unmarried parent families has increased significantly from 2.2 million in 2003 to 2.9 million in 2013 (Office for National Statistics, 2013). There has been a slow but steady rise in the number of single parent families, 1.9 million in 2013, up from 1.8 million in 2003. Out of 26.4 million households in the UK in 2013, 29% consisted of only one person, while the fastest growing household type was households containing two or more families (Office for National Statistics, 2013). It is clear that the family unit is constantly changing as society changes and so it seems natural to suggest that there are many elements of diversity within families that can affect their social control. Fogarty, Rapoport and Rapoport (1982) identify five main types of family diversity in modern Britain:a. organizational, b. cultural, c. class, d. life-cycle of family, and e. cohort. (Rapoport, Fogarty and Rapoport, 1982, p. 479) Organisational diversity speaks of the family structure, kinship patterns and division of labour within the home. For example, traditional nuclear families, consisting of husband, wife and two children; single-parent families; dual-worker families where both parents work; and step-families. (Rapoport, Fogarty and Rapoport, 1982, p. 479) Cultural diversity refers to the differences in lifestyles between families of different ethnic, religious, or political backgrounds. For example, Catholic societies do not allow abortion or contraception, so this would necessarily lead to larger families and thus, perhaps, a stronger social influence over younger members. Class diversity means the class divisions between different classes, which give different amounts of access to resources. This can be seen in relationships between men and women, parenting of children and connections with extended family. (Rapoport, Fogarty and Rapoport, 1982, p. 479) Life-course refers to differences in family life that occur over time. For example, young parents living with their child have a different experience from an elderly couple with adult children. Cohort refers to generational links within families, which can be important when extended family members live close to the nuclear family (Rapoport, Fogarty and Rapoport, 1982, p. 479); this would generally increase the strength of familial social control. The family unit has historically always been an important in shaping the characters and behaviour of its members, so that the family is the first institution that helps in implementing social control mechanism (Pandit, 2009, p. 73). Children grow up within the moral framework laid down by the older family members. However, with the breakdown of the traditional nuclear family structure, there have been other modes of social control that have become increasingly important. The mass media is actively engaged with virtually all peoples homes in the modern world. Mass media, such as television and newspapers, influences our attitudes and even our values can be skewed by the media as products and services are advertised as necessities. Advertising acts as an effective form of positive and negative social control by encouraging the consumer to confirm to social norms. For example, we are encouraged to buy deodorant to avoid body odour and thus the disapproval of others, while we are also encouraged to buy fashionable clothes to impress others (Batra, Myers and Aaker, 2006, p. 359). It is, in this way, that the media has become an important source of social control on a day to day basis because the more pressing influences on our daily behaviour are those influences that exist in our immediate vicinity. Indeed, the proliferation of the media has altered the very nature of contemporary social order (Innes, 2003, p. 60). However, the most pressing influence of the media is not necessarily as a form of social control but as a form of social ordering in that it determines not how we think but what issues we tend to think about (Innes, 2003, p. 60). The media directs public attention to certain issues and causes them to be the subject of public and private debate. More specifically within the media, the rise of the internet has made social media an important element in social control and social ordering, particularly among young people. The rise in personal technology and popularity of social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, has meant that informal social control has grown between young people and their peer group. Friends can share photos on social networks and record every event in detail, tagging each other in photos, thus appearing on other pages without explicit consent. There is less privacy than ever before and people are being pressured into social conformity in many different ways via social networks:ÃâÃ social media can enable teens to succumb to peer pressure en masse (Firger, 2015). There is no other form of media that allows for greater recording and sharing of the smallest details of every interaction. These details can be projected around the world at the touch of a button. The social control exerted by social media is effective due to its wide reach and easy access. This kind of influence can be used for both good and bad (Herring, 2015, p. 50). The ability to connect with people so easily is a positive element of social media, strengthening bonds and encouraging greater understanding of other peoples cultures and viewpoints (Herring, 2015, p. 141). However, other areas of negative social control have also arisen in the digital space. Not only can social media be a means to communicating the wrong information, it has also led to new forms of social control, such as cyber bullying; disturbingly, twenty-five percent of teens have reported being bullied online via social media on their phones (Herring, 2015, p. 142). Social media has also been cited as a main cause for the marked increase in eating disorders among young people in recent years (Dugan, 2014). People are now being threatened in new ways, often from a great physical distance, to conform to their peer group. This kind of digital social control is distinct from other social control in that it can be wielded 24 hours a day, in a similar way to familial social control. The family has always been an important part of social control due to its close proximity to us, especially as children. However, with the changing face of the family, this form of social control has become less obviously effective. The change in the family unit and the reduction in traditional nuclear families means that the social control of families is more diluted. At the same time, the development of personal technology combined with the rise in internet usage and social media has meant that people now have more media influence in their lives. Indeed, powerful modern technology is making it more difficult for individuals to exert control over their personal worlds (Spring, 2013, p. 62), as they are effectively controlled by social influences entering their lives through their own mobiles and tablets. The media as a type of formal social control and social ordering has always been powerful but now that news and entertainment can be accessed 24 hours a day from a mobile phone, and social networks mean every moment can be shared, people are more influenced by the media than ever before. Despite this surge in the social control and social ordering by the media through the internet and social networking sites, the family still remains a highly effective means of social control. Robert Chester points out that, although times have changed, most people do still tend to spend a part of their life at least, within a typical family structure. We are usually born into a family, experience some kind of relationship and develop awareness of what family means (Chester, 1985). Although the media has increased its influence due to greater access to technology and the development of the internet, the primary role of the media, certainly for adults, tends to be in the realm of social ordering rather than social control. The family unit, in all its modern wide variety of forms and its strong influence over our values and morals, still maintains an effective role as a means of social control through its physical and emotional proximity and its direct influence over our behaviour, esp ecially in our earlier, most formative years. Bibliography Baron, K. G. 2007. Effects of Relationship Quality and Social Control on Adherence to CPAP in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Batra, R., Myers, J. G. and Aaker, D. A. 2006. Advertising Management. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Bernardes, J. 1997. 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